There are several Components of an FPSO that are important to proper functioning of the facility.
Here is a rundown of the core components of an FPSO vessel.
Components of an FPSO Vessel
Spread mooring: Spread mooring is a traditional mooring system, incorporating a number of mooring lines attached to the hull of the vessel. These mooring lines are anchored onto the seabed.
(weathervaning) – The
turret is integrated into the FPSOs hull, so the hull weathervanes around the
mooring system and the mooring line. This enables FPSOs to position the vessel
favourably against the wind so that it remains bow to wind and weather.
A turret mooring system is critical for harsh weather conditions. In essence, the turret enables the FPSO to freely rotate while moored to various locations on the seafloor.
Detachable FPSO turret – Many turret systems allow the turret to be disconnected from the vessel, but remain attached to the mooring lines on the seabed. This is particularly useful in situations such as hurricanes and storms, where the vessel needs to react quickly to external hazards. Once the threat has been mitigated, the FPSO can return to the turret, reattach and continue operations. This mooring system is by far the most flexible.
Gas dehydration – Gas is often saturated with water vapour, which poses a threat to facilities. Gas dehydration removes the water that is associated with natural gas.
Gas compression – Natural gas must be treated to conform to commercial standards.
Water injection – Water injection is a process where water is introduced into a reservoir to encourage oil production.
Gas, water and oil separator – As water, gas and oil have different densities, they can be separated with gas rising to the top, water on the bottom and oil staying in the middle. Additional debris such as sand will settle at the bottom.
Seawater treatment – Sea water treatment involves removing sulfates and other unwanted elements from injection water.
Benefits of FPSO
Why have FPSOs become so important for oil & gas companies?
Conceptually, FPSOs have given oil and gas companies a lot of freedom and versatility with regards to exploration and extraction. FPSOs enables companies to produce oil & gas and explore increasingly remote areas at a cheaper price in comparison to traditional offshore oil and gas production and storage methods.